Monthly Archives: December 2015

Four Permaculture Insights From a Soil Fertility Course

What can a permaculturist learn from a Soil Fertility course at Ohio State—one taught mainly for future corn and soybean farmers? A surprising amount, actually.  Here are a few learning highlights.

● Nitrogen is fickle; only 15% of the nitrogen in good organic soil is typically available to plants, but those nitrogen compounds are also prone to moving through the soil,  washing away or disappearing into the atmosphere as gas.  Permaculturists can take advantage of this mobility by establishing nitrogen-fixing plants like sea buckthorn

sea buckthornthroughout their plots. Nearby plants can then access a steady flow of fresh ammonium or nitrate–their favorite nitrogen sources. 

But artificial nitrogen applied during conventional farming is way too mobile—especially for farmers who prefer to fertilize in the fall when it’s most convenient. By the time corn really needs nitrogen compounds for its July growth spurt, most of that nitrogen is usually long gone–often off polluting rivers and lakes.

● Phosphorous is stubborn; it only makes itself available to plants when it “feels” like it.  Usually it forms strong bonds to minerals like aluminum and calcium and only chooses to disassociate itself at just the right pH (around 6.2) and with the help of lots of organic matter. Even then, it may hold back. Phosphorous-rich plots may not allow plants to access this essential element because the soil doesn’t hold enough (surprise!) zinc. As one of our guest lecturers said, getting nutrients to interact productively can become as complicated as any subject in science.

Major storms, which global warming has multiplied dramatically in Ohio over the past 30 years, have exposed a special difficulty with artificial phosphorous fertilizers: The few percentage points of phosphorous that are soluble have increasingly become Ohio’s major nutrient source for toxic algae bloom. 

toxic algae bloom Any sudden rain over 2 inches and we’ve got major water quality problems in Lake Erie.

great lakes algae bloom

● Adding gypsum (calcium sulfate) can be an effective way to increase the calcium content of soil without raising pH. This has special relevance for my small pawpaw orchard since calcium helps fruit trees hold on to baby fruitlets. (My five trees, which formed 200 emerging pawpaws last spring, ultimately lost all but four!) Moreover, since pawpaws prefer acidic soils in the 5.5-6.5 pH range, gypsum offers a preferable alternative to lime (calcium carbonate), which tends to raise pH.  Finally–and of great interest to NE Ohio gardeners–gypsum penetrates hard clay soils, especially when applied regularly over several years. The dissolved sulfate half of the gypsum molecule forms a mild solution of sulfuric acid that cuts a path into the clay through which the calcium can pass.  Calcium then helps the clay form those lovely soil aggregates that gardeners dream about.structure_photo2

Calcium in its lime form, by contrast, can take years to penetrate clay.

● Leaves give out color clues about what minerals they’re missing.  Phosphorous-deficient leaves turn purple, for example, 

P deficiency

 and potassium-deficient leaves turn brown around their outer edges.

K deficiency

These signs never offer the final word, which should come in the form of a formal soil test.  But several of my honeyberry bushes turned purple (phosphorous?) last summer and five of my young salal bushes turned brown around the edges (potassium?) several weeks before their sad, dusty end.  I was able to restore one to green, expanding glory

Salalwith several buckets full of diluted urine, but I’m not sure which of urine’s many beneficial elements–including potassium–was the real savior.

I learned a lot more, but, of course, the Soil Fertility class wasn’t about permaculture. In fact, it only just barely touched on permaculture’s broad-acre cousin: agro-ecological farming–the type of farming that is represented by the Ohio Ecological Farm & Food Association (

Instead, it gave me a snapshot of Big Ag’s best thinking at a moment of major ecological and political change. Big Ag’s assumptions of ever more artificial fertilizer for ever more productivity, of course, face increasing skepticism.  Big Ag’s response seems to fall somewhere on the continuum of Kubler-Ross’s famous stages of grief–maybe between “denial” and “bargaining.” Too many fossil-fuel-based fertilizers and pesticides? Big Ag’s solution to carbon loss, climate change and pollution is more of the same:  top-down and big bucks.

Take the problem of inefficiently applied nitrogen. Why not perform remote sensing of nutrients from the air?

remote sensing of fertilityOr better yet why not develop a machine that will sense nutrient needs as it passes with sufficient height through a field of already growing corn and then apply just the right amount of fertilizer on the spot? 

A large sprayer applies nitrogen fertilizer to a field. The equipment is assisted by technology that optimizes the application of fertilizer—using it only where needed on the field. This reduces cost to the grower. Photo credit: Bill Raun
A large sprayer applies nitrogen fertilizer to a field. The equipment is assisted by technology that optimizes the application of fertilizer—using it only where needed on the field. This reduces cost to the grower. Photo credit: Bill Raun

Machines like these, of course, cost tens of thousands of dollars and are likely only affordable for farmers growing monoculture crops across broad acreage.

And that was another major takeaway from the course: Big monoculture farming is getting bigger yet.  Over half of Ohio agricultural land is now farmed, not by its owners. but by renters. These renters farm as much land as their equipment will let them. Moreover, they have little incentive to improve the land and its capacity for carbon retention. Next season, after all, they may well be working someone else’s land.

Yet even in Big Ag, the trends point in multiple directions. Those farmers who still work land they do own are showing rising interest in planting cover crops. These, of course, improve fertility and raise soil carbon content naturally. clover3They augur well for the long-term soil health of the land.  My professor says he’s never received more inquiries about which cover crops to plant when.

So what’s the outlook for our state’s agriculture?  Muddy, just like Ohio fields after all our burgeoning high-volume thunder storms.

Summer Herbs to Warm Winter’s Cold Heart

by Ann McCulloh

If there’s one thing I do that consistently lifts my spirits all winter long, it’s making tea with herbs I’ve grown myself.

There’s almost no end to the number of friendly, easy to grow tea herbs that can thrive in an Ohio garden. I can harvest a whole winter’s worth of heartwarming flavors, colors and aromas from a handful of personal favorites grown in a very small space. The following are perennials that are planted one time, and return year after year.

Anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) sweet, anise-scented

Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis) calming, lemony

Peppermint (Mentha piperita) sweet, aromatic, tummy-soothing

Spearmint (Mentha spicata) similar to Peppermint, less intense

Nettles (Urtica dioica) grassy flavor, rich in iron, calcium, magnesium and potassium

Lavender (Lavandula, various types) aromatic, soothing – and pretty!

Annuals Calendula and Chamomile have been re-seeding in my garden for years, moving around at will. I just move the ones that come up in awkward spots.

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) soothing, earthy sweetness

chamomile flower

Calendula (Calendula officinalis) colorful, mildly pungent, gently promotes healing

Calendula flower

I purchase the following as plants each year, because they’re frost-tender. If you have a greenhouse or very sunny window (I do not) they can winter over in a pot:

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) sweetens non-calorically – just a teaspoon per pot is plenty for me!

Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum) earthy, clove-scented and warming

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) fragrant, stimulating and soothing to sore throats (sometimes survives outdoors in zone 6, but it’s not a sure thing.)

As a gardener I appreciate these herbs for their seeming imperviousness to pests, drought and disease. Some of them, like nettles and chamomile, contain so many healthy minerals and nutrients that they support the growth of neighboring plants, and are great for adding to the compost pile, too. A lovely  book about growing, harvesting and using herbs from your garden is How to Move Like a Gardener, by Deb Soule of Avena Botanicals; Under the Willow Press, 2013. I purchased my copy on-line at Illustrated with gorgeous photos and poetically yet practically written, it’s a book to warm you with thoughts of summer gardens while sipping a cup of homegrown tea.

Harvesting the way I do it is pretty simple: I cut whole leafy stems before the plant flowers, bunch them and hang in an airy, shade place until dry (usually 7-10 days). Then I gently strip the leaves over a sheet of newspaper, and slide them into a glass jar. Flowers are picked in the morning after the dew dries, as soon as possible after they open, and hung up or dried on an old window screen, for a week or until crisp. That’s it, no fancy equipment, no fossil fuels, fans blowers or kits. 

herbs drying2

I keep each herb in its own separate jar, to use singly (peppermint, lemon balm) or blend at will. Just a tablespoon of lavender, mint or holy basil added to a pot of regular black tea adds a new sensory dimension. Lemon balm, chamomile, nettle and spearmint make a relaxing, restorative bedtime blend. I’m headed to the kitchen for a cup of calendula, rosemary and nettle – reviving after a couple of hours spent behind a desk!

A Poet Walks through “Painting the Modern Garden: Monet-Matisse.” Cleveland Museum of Art. October 11, 2015-January 6, 2016.

David Adams

People respond so individually to works of art, and one can never be sure where the journey of understanding will begin or end. I am sure that avid gardeners will revel not only in the paintings in this exhibit, but also in the technical details and horticultural expertise shared among the painters. Others may focus on the idea of the garden as a place of solace, so close to our most primal mythologies. As I leave aside the myriad of other possible perspectives on what was, for me at least, a stunning exhibition, I will try to describe a bit of this one poet’s journey, hoping that it might add some small grace to the journeys of others 

My first time walking through these galleries of gardens I felt an overwhelming explosion of the senses as the feast of colors leapt from the canvas in such works as these (of course, these thumbnails hardly do justice!). One can almost breathe in the fragrances, feel the touch of wind, and hear the insects flitting back and forth, the hushed voices of humans carrying their watering cans.

Dennis Miller Bunker, Chrysanthemums, 1888
Dennis Miller Bunker, Chrysanthemums, 1888
Chrysanthemums, 1888. Dennis Miller Bunker (American, 1861–1890). Oil on canvas; 90 x 121 cm. Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, P3w5.

Images in this article provided courtesy of the Cleveland Museum of Art Press/Media Kit.

But after the overwhelming response of the senses, other interactions emerge as a dialogue with those long distant moments of creation, at first between poet and painting, then through the painting to the painter. What can I really see here if I just look long enough? What were you thinking as the painting came to rest as what I see? As a poet I might paraphrase Karl Shapiro’s prescient question: What is the poetry of all of that? If the poet has any luck at all, the answers blossom everywhere.

Poets have a long history of ecphrasis, using one of the other arts, usually visual arts, as an inspiration for a poem. John Hollander captures this history well in The Gazer’s Spirit: Poems Speaking to Silent Works of Art. (1995). Of course, even his subtitle begs the question of whether any work of art is truly silent. For a walk through these gardens so strongly resembles the journey through a really wonderful poem that I can scarcely let go of the experience. I can recall two other CMA exhibitions that affected me so, both in 1991. The first was The Triumph of Japanese Style, with its evocative, large painted screens that even had poems as part of the art itself. This show led to a set of “Sun and Moon Landscape” haiku. The second was Reckoning with Winslow Homer, an excursion that unfolded as a complete surprise, one that shattered all my preconceptions about that artist and led directly to one of the longest, most complex and thoroughly rewarding poems I ever wrote. So a rendered garden is also a story on its way to being.

And what can live in such gardens as these? Whatever one wishes, or even dreads. As people become more prominent in the paintings, or as the world outside the garden casts a deeper shadow in them, the stories emerge with greater force.

“Each day brings its toad, each night its dragon.” This opening line from Randall Jarrell’s “Jerome” somehow surfaced during my second view of the exhibit. Jarrell’s poem has as its framework an ecphrasis based on a Durër engraving of St. Jerome and His Lion, but quickly recasts itself as a journey into the life of a psychoanalyst—his aloneness, his solitude, the weight of the night’s dreams, and the solace brought him by the dawn. The extensive worksheets for this poem were preserved by Mary Jarrell in Jerome: The Biography of a Poem (1971). These worksheets reveal how the conversation between poet and work of art emerges and changes the resulting poem as it grows to something like completion. I believe that this sort of conversation lies at the heart of ecphrasis, at the heart of making the poem. One must imagine that painters have the same sort of interaction with their subjects.

Sjalusi i hagen, 1929-30
Sjalusi i hagen, 1929-30
Jealousy in the Garden, 1929–30. Edvard Munch (Norwegian, 1863–1944). Oil on canvas; 100 x 120 cm. Munch Museum, Oslo, MM M 437/Woll M 1662. Photo: © Munch Museum. © 2015 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

The same change in what there is to see seems evident in Münter’s Woman in a Garden or Klee’s Death in a Garden.


Woman in Garden, 1912. Gabriele Münter (German, 1877–1962). Oil on board; 48.3 x 66 cm. Neue Galerie New York EL. 51. This work is part of the collection of Estée Lauder and was made available through the generosity of Estée Lauder. © 2015 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn.
Paul KleeGerman, born Switzerland, 1879–1940Death in the Garden (Legend), 1919Oil on cotton, on cardboard nailed to wood10 3/4 x 9 3/4 in. (27.3 x 24.8 cm)Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Randall Shapiro1996.393The Art Institute of Chicago
Paul Klee
German, born Switzerland, 1879–1940
Death in the Garden (Legend), 1919
Oil on cotton, on cardboard nailed to wood
10 3/4 x 9 3/4 in. (27.3 x 24.8 cm)
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Randall Shapiro
The Art Institute of Chicago
Death in the Garden (Legend), 1919. Paul Klee (Swiss, 1879–1940). Oil on cotton, on cardboard nailed to wood; 27.3 x 24.8 cm. The Art Institute of Chicago, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Randall Shapiro 1996.393. © 2015 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

When works such as these spark responses of such deep wonder, the question is never if a poem will emerge, but rather when it will emerge, how many will do so, and in what fashion. I read somewhere that later artists among the Surrealists and Dadaists felt the works of the Impressionists too constructed, too linear, too distant from the unconscious. That view would seem very odd to a poet just done “talking” with them, pressing the conversation deeper and deeper into the boundless garden, into the making of a painting or a poem—all the shifting lines and changes, the epiphanies and surprises along the way in these works that are never really static, never truly silent, and never the last word.


Hollander, John. The Gazer’s Spirit: Poems Speaking to Silent Works of Art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Jarrell, Mary. Jerome: The Biography of a Poem. New York: Grossman Publishers, 1971.

What’s So Great About Hoverflies?

by Tom Gibson

Imagine sitting down with an impassioned collector of buttons to discuss his triumphs. First, a large red button discovered in an attic in Toronto.  Then a rare pearl button found at a second-hand store in Cleveland, followed by a detailed description, which the collector imagines to be droll, of the store’s eccentric proprietor. 

How soon before you want to scream?

That was my reaction to The Fly Trap, written by Fredrik Sjöberg, who has devoted his life to collecting hoverflies (202 separate species, according to the book) on an island off the coast of the Swedish mainland. I bring this book to the attention of Gardenopolis Cleveland readers because you might well be tempted to read it.  It made this year’s New York Times list of the 100 Notable Books and has gathered high praise from a Swedish Nobel prize winner and various reviewers:  ”A rare masterpiece…Graceful, poetic, astonishing, and–yes!–absolutely thrilling.”

Not. (One is reminded of a real Scandinavian masterpiece, The Emperor’s New Clothes.) The author displays an astonishing lack of enthusiasm, given his subject matter, for either nature or for the lives and roles of hoverflies; his main thrill comes from discovering species that others haven’t. In a burst of candor, he even admits to the narrowness of his passion when he describes it as “buttonology,” the collecting of something special  just to him. Only other collectors of things–saw flies, dragonflies, but also porcelain and painting seem to resonate.  Otherwise, he’d rather be alone on his island.

Instead of reading this book, I would encourage Gardenopolis Cleveland readers  to savor the real pleasure of observing hoverflies in your own gardens. They hover (of course) over your flowers, wings beating at 120 times per second, before diving in to gather pollen and darting to a neighboring blossom.

They are also a great example of mimicry in nature; though harmless in their adult stage, these two-winged flies (Diptera) have evolved to scare off predators by resembling more dangerous four-winged wasps (Hymenoptera).

Their greatest value to the gardener, however, may be the insatiable appetite their highly predatory larvae have for aphids.  One larva can eat 50 aphids a day!

Hover Fly Larva Plain

Fortunately, many familiar plants attract them, including fennel, lavender, cosmos, and dill (larger list here:  Here’s a hoverfly eating dill pollen:

hoverfly and dill

Twisted:             A Wish for Children

by Elsa Johnson

Perhaps it is the wind.

You cannot see a tree grow

a twist. If a tree is started on a turn

it spirals over time,  a right hand

whorl or left,  movement taking years

to reach visible  effect.  You can walk

in a grove of old trees,  all standing

straight,  spot one,  then two,  twisted

in opposite directions. Why trees do this

puzzles:   once the turn has started

so must it go on. Is it like this also

for children? Does the twist toward fear –

suspicion –  hurt –  happen early

and unnoticed, and is then bound

to the growing grain?

O Changing wind:   give my buddings

a veer toward joy.  Twist

them gentle.

Reflections on Ben Falk’s Northeast Ohio Tour, October 21-24, 2015

by Jessie Jones

Foamy, muddy water gallops over a waterfall after a severe storm in Vermont. Ben Falk then switches the camera to a quiet trickle of clear water leaving the low point on his property, same storm. Obviously, Ben’s plantings do a vastly better job of retaining water and soil than his neighbor’s.  I knew academically this could be done, but too few people have tried, succeeded and documented it well. When asked during a moderated discussion why he wrote his new award-winning book, The Resilient Farm and Homestead , that is the reason he gave. “We need more people trying things and sharing the results. There’s too much theory in Permaculture.”

Ben Falk is a young Vermont-based designer, farmer, homesteader. After I participated in a permaculture design certification course at his farm in 2013, I was eager to bring Ben to Ohio to share his expertise and vision. Earlier this fall, he completed an action-filled four day tour of northeast Ohio in October.

Ben’s tour featured two public events: University of Akron Field Station in Bath hosted a Forum for Farmers and Designers for 20 guests, and The First Unitarian Church of Cleveland in Shaker Heights hosted a public lecture, attended by over 150 guests.

ben falk uu

The tour also included site consults with six farms: Kelly’s Working Well Farm in Chagrin Falls; Light Footsteps Farm in Chardon; Spice Acres Farm at the Countryside Conservancy in Brecksville; Thorn Valley Farm in Newbury; Hershey Montessori “Farm School” in Huntsburg Township; and Terra Firma Farm in Walton Hills.

At all six farms water management, without exception, was among the proprietors’ highest priorities.  They also had questions about non-native plants and site design. Here are some of Ben’s thoughts, many of which apply to gardens as well as farms:

Water management strategies

Slow it, sink it, spread it – basic permaculture tenet

Keep it on the surface: if confined in a culvert, water will pick up speed and become a more damaging force

To slow water, build a series of check dams.

Repeated check dams built with overflows on alternating sides will cause high volumes of water to meander more slowly. Dams can be planted with woody or herbaceous perennials, creating chinampas – one of the most productive agricultural configurations in human history. Depending on scale, one can use apple trees, blueberries or herbaceous perennials (think rain garden species)

Along streambeds, ensure water has access to flood plain as much as possible. Steep and deep banks speed water flow and increase erosion.


Ben Falk Pond

When choosing a pond site,

Consult a topographic map to calculate the volume of rainwater it will be catching, based on the surrounding slopes

Consider respective elevation, ideally at highest point or at least higher than the area to be irrigated.

Consider proximity to zones of use – easy access for irrigation, livestock watering, human use

Consider placement relative to livestock: not directly downhill from point source of manure. If this is unavoidable, use swales to direct water flow across slope and away from pond.

Pond volume should corresponds appropriately to amount of annual water drainage for the selected pond site

Environment surrounding pond

Edges should be planted with wetland species like rushes and cattails, which oxygenate the water. Even a shallow pond with low flow-through can have healthy, clear water with the right balance of wetland plants.

Perennial plants on pond banks should not be mown close to water edge as they provide shade and cover for amphibians as well as helping stabilize the banks. Margin can be mown in a scalloped pattern to increase “edge” and provide easier water access for small animals.

Shade is essential for a healthy pond and aquatic life.

Trees can provide shade but must not be planted on the pond berm.

Tall perennial plants are a good choice  – some prairie plants grow to six or more feet. 

Floating islands of plantings require some maintenance and should be removed in winter, but are attractive and can shade areas far from the shore.

Docks provide shade and protected habitat as well as human interface to pond environment.

Non-native plants

Vermont does not face the same challenges with opportunistic non-native plants, but one strategy Ben suggested is to provide competition in areas that are overgrown with unwanted, aggressive plants. Among the unwanted plants, add vigorous pioneer plants that provide desired yields such as black locust, autumn olive and Jerusalem artichoke. About which plant Ben quipped “If you can have only two tools for survival, choose Jerusalem artichokes and a .22.”

Site design

Zone 1 – This Permaculture concept describes the area you visit every day, sometimes often, such as your doorway and the walk to the car/garage or barn/animal care.

zone 1 (2)

Zone one must have good sunlight, ideally south aspect

Best location for growing food, culinary herbs

High maintenance growing should be in zone one since it’s easy to weed, water, watch for disease

Scale of permanence – site plan revolves around permanent features such as buildings, roads, contours of the land.

Place them carefully if you have a choice

Roads should be sited to provide access to all parts of property

Better for roads not to bisect open areas such as pasture

Expensive fence should be saved for property perimeter. Livestock can be contained with inexpensive, moveable electronet for mob grazing

Trees are not permanent. Even big trees, if they are placed badly and/or don’t provide a yield that you value (beauty, shade, food), should be removed

In some cases a building can and should be moved or changed in significant ways

Keep your perspective flexible – mindset should not be high on the scale of permanence!

Beauty as a yield – Ben reminds clients that beauty is a legitimate yield of a system. Indeed, Ben’s cultivation of beauty is one of the things that makes the experiences of reading his book and visiting his homestead so enjoyable.

Looking at a pond is beautiful. Looking at it through a screen of fruit trees is even more beautiful.

Plant walkway edges with a wide array of herbaceous perennials. They can be knocked down for snow removal and provide food and habitat for insects and birds. Coordinate with others to buy plugs in flats at wholesale prices. Many have medicinal properties as well (e.g. monarda, calendula).

Though mundane, it is worth considering, Ben reminds us, that all projects potentially impact property values. Consider aesthetics when planning significant work.

Ben was struck by the variety and quantity of nut trees in Ohio. We were delighted to discover that one farm had a mature chestnut tree that was bearing heavily.  

americn chestnut

He especially admired the hickory trees, which are scarce in Vermont. Interestingly, deer are also scarce in Vermont, compared to our population. He recently received a grant to provide for significant fencing in support of a grazing operation on one of his farms. He suggested concerned farmers in Ohio could seek funding for deer fencing.

The most coveted role in Ben’s entourage seems to me to be that of host and chauffeur. I was honored to attend all consults and events as well as provide room and board. Ben is a wise, patient, down-to-earth guy. His tour was an unparalleled learning opportunity and inspires me to start right away planning another guest for next year!

Goji Berries for What?

by Tom Gibson

Now that I’m getting bumper crops of goji berries, I’ve got to figure out how to eat them and all their reputed antioxidants.  Ingested by themselves, nobody I’ve met seems to like them much.  Neither do the birds, bugs, and deer.  The brilliant red-orange berries–presumably visible to most critters–kept emerging all fall and remained virtually untouched .

The goji berry’s mild bittersweet taste does make a nice, but understated contrast as an addition to an apple/orange salad.  But the sheer volume of my harvest this fall necessitates a search for more variety.

A web search has turned up a winner. My wife and I would give

the recipe below between a B+ and an A-. And the dressing

would work well on all kinds of salads:



1 heaped cup red cabbage, shredded

1 medium beetroot, grated

2 carrots, grated

Corn cut from 1 corn cob

1 spring onion, cut on the diagonal, white part only

To garnish: Chopped coriander (cilantro) and a sprinkle of goji berries

Goji Dressing

¾ cup goji berries

4 tablespoons apple cider vinegar

1 tablespoon ginger, peeled and chopped

1½ tablespoons white miso

1 tablespoon tahini

Pinch of salt

Grind or two of black pepper



Put the cabbage, beetroot, carrots and corn in a bowl and sprinkle over the onion, gently mix, and garnish with coriander and goji. Set aside while you prepare the dressing

Goji Dressing

Place goji berries into a glass or mug, and cover them, only just, with filtered water. Let them to soak for up to half an hour till nice and soft, keep the water – don’t throw it out

Blend all ingredients with the goji and their soak water till you’ve reached a nice consistency, then pour liberally over the rainbow salad and serve.

One Caveat: The recipe above is clearly meant for dried goji berries, not fresh.

Here’s what my fresh ones looked like:

gojiberrysalad IMG_2374

At 3/4 of a cup, this quantity of goji berries is at least equal to--and maybe more than--the tiny Whole Foods packets of dried berries which sell for $17 apiece.

The end result is as tasty as it is colorful: